Movie Theaters or cinema is a place to show movies to the audience. At the beginning of the film, the film was shown in cafes, tea houses and other places. With the advancement and development of the film, there has been a cinema with specific cinema chairs built specifically for the screening of movies. The development of the film – from silent to sound and even stereo, from black and white to color, from ordinary screen to wide screen to curtain, ring screen, the cinema’s shape, size, proportion and acoustic technology have changed a lot. Cinemas must meet the process requirements of film screenings, get the proper visual and auditory effects, and now movies have become the argument for people after dinner. Here are a few points you need to consider.
1. How many audience do you want to fit? – How many movie theater chairs can your theater room contain?
Cinemas should be arranged reasonably and appropriately. When the total size of the cinema is large, it is advisable to have multiple auditoriums.
The size of the cinema can be divided into
- Extra large 1801 cinema seating or more or 11 halls or more halls
- Large 1201~1800 movie chairs or 8~10 halls
- Medium-sized 701 to 1200 media seating or 5 to 7 rooms
- Small 700 cinema seats or 4 halls.
2. Quality standards
The quality standards of cinemas are four grades: A, B, C D (combined with extra large, large, medium and small). A is the best, it is determined on a specific basis. The corresponding requirements of B, C,D etc. shall comply with the following provisions.
First, the durability of the main structure: B range should be more than 100 years, C should be 50 to 100 years, D should be 25 to 50 years.
Second, the fire retardant standards: A, B, etc. should not be lower than the second level; C,D should not be lower than the third level, and should not have extra large halls.
3. Choose the place
The choice of cinema base should be reasonably arranged according to the overall plan of local town construction and should meet the following requirements.
- The main entrance of the base shall be adjacent to the town road, square or open space.
- The width of the road before the main entrance shall not be less than the sum of the widths of the safety exits, and the small cinema shall not be less than 8m, the medium-sized cinema shall not be less than 12m, the large-scale shall not be less than 20m, and the extra-large size shall not be less than 25m.
- The collection and distribution vacant land before the main entrance, the medium and small cinemas shall be counted at 0.2 m2 per cinema seat, and the large and extra large cinemas shall meet the requirements in addition to the requirements, and the depth shall not be less than 10 m;
- The distribution and distribution of the main areas of the multi-audience hall cinema shall be calculated according to the maximum number of people actually allocated; the number of cinemas with more than 2,000 theater seats shall be distributed at the scores.
- The cinemas at the intersections should still meet the requirements of the towns for the visual distance of traffic vehicles.
Cinema Layout and Passage way
The general theater seating layout should be clearly defined in terms of functional division. Pedestrian traffic and traffic, pedestrian flow and internal routes (process and management) are clear and convenient, and do not interfere with each other, and should meet the following requirements.
- In the event of a fire or other emergency, the audience and staff should be evacuated to a safe place with lighting and appropriate access and venue for fire fighting operations.
- For a movie theater facing the street, at least the other side shall have an empty space or access to the inner courtyard. The large and extra large areas shall have at least two sides of the inner courtyard empty space or passage, and the width shall not be less than 3.5 m.
- The cinemas built and built in addition to the firewall and adjacent buildings are divided into independent fire zones, and the remaining airfront parts shall still be executed in accordance with the above paragraph.
Fourth, the equipment room should be placed in the least interference to the audience, and should pay attention to safety, hygiene, noise reduction, vibration reduction and equipment installation and maintenance.
- Motor vehicles and bicycle parking lots should be set up in the general plane, or should be considered by urban transportation planning.
- The requirements for drainage, noise isolation, energy conservation, etc. should be met in the general plane, and greening should be arranged according to the conditions.
First, the distance between the armrests of the cinema seating: the hard chair should not be less than 0.48m, and the soft chair should not be less than 0.50m.
Second, the cinema seat row spacing: short row hard chair should not be less than 0.75m, soft chair should not be less than 0.80m; long row hard chair should not be less than 0.90m, soft chair should not be less than 0.95m; step type (slit, The seat spacing of the building should be increased correspondingly to the above values; the row spacing of the last row of the rear wall should be increased by 0.12m.
The number of cinema seats in each row should meet the following requirements.
- Short-row method: When there are longitudinal walkways on both sides and the minimum row spacing, the number of seats in each row should not exceed 22, and each additional 50mm in the subsequent row spacing can add 2 seats.
- The long row method: each row of seats can be increased to 50.
- When there is a longitudinal walkway on only one side, the number of seats mentioned above is halved accordingly.
Short row method should not exceed 20 rows between two horizontal walkways; when there is no crosswalk on the back wall, there should be no more than 10 rows between a horizontal walkway and the rear wall.
Cnema chairs should be arranged in an arc or a line similar to the arc (small can be arranged in a straight line), or a mixture of the two methods. The radius of curvature of the arc in the center of the auditorium or the length of the 1/2 hall is generally equal to the horizontal distance from the screen to the last row.
There are different ways to divide high-quality areas, but in general the center of the seating area is a high-quality area.
Each row of the movie theater seating is usually arranged in an arc, which is mainly to make the light from the projector shine on the screen and then reflect it into the eyes of the audience, that is, the principle that the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence, so that the audience can get the reflection from the screen to the utmost. Light.
In addition to the width of 0.6m per 100 people, the auditorium should meet the following requirements.
- The net width of the middle longitudinal walkway of the short row method shall not be less than 1.0 m, and the net width of the side walkway shall not be less than 0.8 m; the pass width of the crosswalk shall not be less than 1.2 m.
- The long walkway sidewalk should not be less than 1.2m.
- The maximum slope of the slope of the auditorium should not exceed 1:6. Stepped ground should be used when it is more than 1:6; appropriate anti-slip measures should be adopted when the slope of the walkway is 1:10 to 1:6, and step should be adopted when it exceeds 1:6.
The Seating Area Requirements
The movie theater chairs is the main component of the cinema. The screen is the basis for the design of the auditorium. The size of the screen determines the size of the audience. The larger the screen, the more people there are and there will be more audience seating, and the smaller the audience, the smaller the screen, so the auditorium The scale actually depends on the size of the screen. The shape of the screen determines the size of the auditorium, especially for new forms of film. Different varieties have different shapes of screens. The size of the screen of the large-field movie determines the height ratio of the audience hall. The screen of the ring-screen movie determines that the audience hall must be round, and the screen of the curtain movie needs a dome of the audience hall, etc. . Generally, the cinema screen of the flat screen is rectangular or trapezoidal, and the ground has a certain slope.
The auditory conditions of the auditorium, in addition to the electroacoustic quality of the sound-receiving system, also depend on the acoustic quality of the auditorium. The cinema auditorium has its own acoustic features, unlike other performance buildings.
The sound source is fixed. The theater’s speakers are usually placed behind the screen or on the side walls, so the sound source position is fixed.
The sound source position is high. The tweeter of the speaker is typically located 2/3 of the height of the screen, which helps to evenly radiate sound energy to the hallway in all directions and rear seats.
The volume can be adjusted as needed. The power of the sound system is not limited in principle, so it can be direct sound, and it is not necessary to rely too much on the reflected sound to make up for the lack of loudness of some seats.
The sound of the theater is restored from the vocal cords of the film, so it is not necessary to rely on the acoustic conditions of the auditorium to change the original pitch, but only to meet the acoustic frequency response characteristics of the hybrid studio to faithfully restore the sound on the film vocal cord.
The reverberation time is shorter than other performance buildings to increase the clarity of the dialogue. There is no uniform regulation for the best reverberation time in the theater. China is accustomed to 1.0 to 1.2 seconds at 500 Hz, but it is very different in practical applications. The frequency characteristics of the reverberation time are required to be straight in principle, but in practical applications, the low frequency reverberation is slightly longer and the high frequency reverberation is slightly shorter. The reverberation time of the stereo theater is shorter than that of the general theater to enhance the sense of orientation of the sound.
The ambient noise of the auditorium should be low. The noise of the empty environment is 35 decibels (A) when static; 45 decibels (A) when dynamic (changes to projectors and ventilation systems), but 40 decibels when stereo (A) ).
There should be a uniform distribution of sound fields in the auditorium.
The acoustic frequency response characteristics of the cinema should be consistent with that of a film studio mixed recording studio.
Cinema audience halls, like the auditoriums of other performance buildings, should avoid the conditions of various acoustic defects such as echo, tremor echo, acoustic focusing, coupling effects.
The film is accepted by the audience through visual effects. Vision is the feeling that people distinguish the brightness and color characteristics of external objects. Vision plays an important role in distinguishing the spatial properties of objects, such as size, distance and so on. When people watch a 35mm regular movie, because the area of the picture is small, the visual conditions only require viewing the full picture and seeing the picture, and the spatial attributes of the vision are indistinguishable. However, widescreen, 70mm wide film and other large-field movies use the characteristics of wide screen and large field of view to make the visual effect of the audience close to real life. They can use the spatial characteristics of the vision to distinguish the distance, position and object of the object. The distance between them helps to give the audience a sense of realism and presence.
The range of space that a person’s monocular fixed can see when looking at the target in front is called the field of view, while the field of view of both eyes is larger than the field of view of the single eye. The central field of view is the most clearly visible part of the entire field of view. The horizontal angle of view for the central field of view is 30° for a single field of view, 36° to 40° for both eyes, and the vertical angle of view for both eyes and eyes is 22°. The central field of view is surrounded by an edge field of view, up to 180° in the horizontal direction and 75° in the vertical direction. Although the degree of clarity during viewing gradually decreases from the center to the edge. But it is precisely because of this edge field of view that the vision plays an important role in the direction of the spatial properties of the object. Therefore, the requirements for the size of the different types of movies are different.
The requirements of the cinema perspective determine the viewer’s distance to the screen, that is, the line of sight. The oblique viewing angle of the spectator is determined by the degree of distortion produced when viewing the picture to limit the distortion of the picture to the allowable range.
Floor slope or Movie theater riser
The height of the first row of spectator seating from the bottom edge of the screen is called the design viewpoint. The design standard of the Chinese national standard for the 35mm film series is set at 2 ± 0.5 meters. However, the requirements for the height of the viewpoints of different types of movies are different. For example, because of the large picture height, the general design viewpoints are low. In order to avoid the viewer’s view angle is too large and feel uncomfortable. The lowest viewpoint height is only 15 cm from the ground. The height of the viewpoint directly affects the slope of the floor of the audience hall. When the viewpoint is high, the slope of the floor of the auditorium rises slowly. If the viewpoint gradually decreases, the slope of the ground gradually becomes steeper, so the lower the viewpoint, the larger the slope of the ground. However, the low point of view, although the visual conditions are good, will be limited because the slope of the ground cannot rise too high; although the height of the view can lower the slope of the ground, too high will make the visual conditions too poor to meet the requirements.
After the height of the viewpoint is determined, the height difference between the adjacent two rows can be calculated from the distance between the two rows of viewers and the two similar triangles formed by the line of sight super high value C, so that the rows are calculated row by row until the last row of the ground slope is obtained. elevation. The line of sight super high value C is the average statistical value from the human eye to the top of the head, and the C value is generally taken to be 12 cm. In the ground slope design of a 35mm ordinary screen movie, if the front and rear rows of the middle area are staggered, the C value can be reduced by 12 centimeters per two rows to reduce the slope of the ground. The principle is that after the misplacement, the rear audience from the front Look at the picture in the gap between the heads of the two viewers. However, in the ground slope design of the large-field movie, the C value should be 12 cm (or 10 cm) per row. Because the large field of view is wide, it can no longer be seen from the gap between the two heads of the front row of viewers.
Other related factors
The establishment of cinemas will encounter many problems concerning the construction of cinemas, especially in the second and third tier cities. Nowadays, the film market is especially young, many people are reflected in some second- and third-tier cities can not watch a large-scale blockbuster, and even some people go to other districts or cities to watch movies. To make the following recommendations for this.
- It is recommended that the city’s cinema construction use a mid-range digital projection system. With the popularity of digital cinema, digital screening will bring low cost and convenience of screening, avoiding the cost and inconvenience of copying movies.
- The current era has reached the era of consumption, so the quality of new theater facilities must keep up with the development needs of the market, and realistically plan and build theaters according to the consumption level in the city. One of the core is to be comfortable, while the multiplex cinema has the flexibility and the choice of diversity, in line with the current consumer orientation.
- The construction of cinemas should be added to the city’s cultural construction plan, and project construction issues should be implemented as soon as possible.
- According to the consumption level of different cities, the construction of cinemas must first consider the customs and consumption standards of local cities and the level of consumption. It is best to complement the policies of urban planning and government in the local cities.
Last but not least, what kind of commercial movie theater seating should you choose?
If you don’t have an idea, you can think about these different kind of designs.
Your cineplex should be diversity, so just you not only need normal compact cinema chairs but also recliners.